Today we explore man’s miniature wonder garden… the terrarium! As usual, we’ll cover what they are, how to make one & the different types that can be established. These have become extremely popular lately for the simple fact that they’re easy to maintain, visually refreshing and fun to make!

everything you need to know about terrariums

What Is a Terrarium?

A terrarium, also commonly referred to as “terraria”, is a clear enclosure used to grow plants.

The prefix terra is Latin for “land” or “terrain.” As you might imagine, the word in itself translates to “land within a container.” Another word for terrarium commonly used in the hobby is terraria, which is used when there is more than one.

what is a terrarium?

These can be used for decorative purposes or with the intent to house vegetation. Terrariums come in all shapes and forms, but usually never house anything other than plants and elements meant to aid in the growth of that particular plant.

The History Of Terrariums

In the mid-1800s, a botanist by the name of Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward stumbled upon terrariums by accident. His fascination with the transformation of moths led him to the idea of placing cocoons in jars of soil for observation. One day, he noticed that one of the jars began blooming. Upon closer look, he noticed a small bit of fern and grass began to sprout from the damp soil. This led Ward to write a book that documented the conception of the terrarium, which would later become extremely popular in England.

a sketch of the worlds first terrarium

Throughout the Victorian era, terrariums became common. At the time, they were referred to as Wardian Cases and were used mostly to transport invasive plants long distances across Europe. Carpenters were hired to construct the housing used to make these enclosures during these days.

Terrarium vs. Vivarium: What’s the Difference?

Terraria and vivaria are very similar in the way they are designed. They both house a type of flora along with elements to support those plants. However, only one (vivariums) involves one or more types of inhabitants. A terrarium doesn’t house live animals. The moment you introduce any type of animal into a terrarium and it becomes established, that enclosure becomes a vivarium.

It is safe to say a terrarium can’t be bio-active. Having Springtails or Isopods added to the substrate of your habitat to help keep the environment thriving adds the “live” aspect to the terrarium, therefore making it a vivarium… More about vivaria.

Making a Terrarium

We can now take a look at how to make a basic terrarium. There are three main parts to consider when building this type of enclosure. After that, you must consider the lighting! No matter how complex your terrarium plan is, it should always consist of these key layers.

Key Layers of a Terrarium

the layers of a basic terrarium

The Drainage layer of this setup usually consists of some type of earthy material, like gravel, rocks and activated charcoal. This area is important because it provides an easy way for stagnant water to escape the reach of flora roots in the potted layer. Allowing water to settle down here helps keep the humidity levels stable within the enclosure. This layer also serves as a good spot for healthy bacteria to thrive and break down unhealthy chemicals like ammonia.

The Substrate layer of the terrarium is made up of some type of grow media and the roots of the plants. In most cases, it contains soil like coco coir or potting mix. You will want something that is easy for plants to root through. The material should also hold moisture well. Healthy bacteria reside in this layer and aid with the breakdown of nutrients that the plants will absorb.

The Plant layer of the terrarium is the centerpiece of the enclosure. This layer comprises the ground cover, upper plant parts (stem, leaf & flower) and any decorations you would like to showcase along with the plants. The ground cover is meant to help keep moisture in the substrate. It can include things like leaf litter or a particular type of moss. The type of plants and decorations will vary based on the type of terrarium you are making.

The Lighting layer is a very important aspect for a terrarium. In fact, it is probably the single most important feature! Without light, your plants will not be able to produce energy from photosynthesis. You can use direct/indirect sunlight or artificial lighting. I recommend LED lighting, but you can also use fluorescent lighting as well.

Different Types Of Terrarium

There are a variety of ways one could build a terrarium. Understanding the types of terrariums will be ideal if you want a thriving, healthy setup. Furthermore, you will have to decide on what you will keep in this enclosure and what will be the requirements. In other words, how much water will those plants require to survive?

different types of terrariums

Closed Container Terrariums

A closed container is the best type of terrarium for plants that require quite a bit of humidity and watering. This enclosure requires all three key features we talked about earlier. As far as lighting goes, I recommend artificial lighting or indirect sunlight.

One good thing about this type of build is that it won’t require much watering. The plants release water vapor.  As the vapors rise, they become trapped on the glass and fall back down to the substrate. The plant recycles the water down to the roots. However, this type of sealed enclosure tends to fog up parts of the glass, ultimately disrupting the view of the terrarium.

Open Container Terrariums

 This is suitable for a wider variety of plants than the other two containers. Even with the overall humidity being lower than a closed container setup, you have much more control over the moisture levels by just adding or removing water. This type of arrangement also requires all three key features. Artificial lighting, direct sunlight or indirect sunlight will suffice for this setup.

It’s a good idea to add a drainage plug for easier water removal. This type of structure can be used as either a dry or wet terrarium. The only con with this kind of container is it may require a bit more maintenance than the other two.

Dish Container Terrariums

These are by far the easiest to build and manage. This type of terrarium is a low-humidity setup and requires very little to no watering. Dish terraria often don’t require all three key features. In many occasions, the drainage & substrate layers are one and the same. In fact, if you are building a terrarium that only houses air plants, you can get away with eliminating those two layers entirely!

There aren’t many disadvantages when it comes to the maintenance of a dish container terrarium. Any type of lighting will work well with this setup. You can set and forget this type of enclosure!

Caring For A Terrarium

The greatest part about having a terrarium is the fact that they don’t require much maintenance. Depending on the type of arrangement you build, you may not have to do anything at all. Like dish containers, you more than likely will have some sort of air plant or succulent on it. Air plants get their needed nourishment from the vapors in the air, and succulents require very little watering. You can water them as little as once or twice a month!

an open terrarium with succulents and cactus

Closed containers will need some light trimming done annually to keep the intended look of a neat setup. But even that is a matter of preference. You might be going for a natural, overgrown look in your terrarium that doesn’t require any human tampering. In that case, adding water might be the only requirement from time to time.

Open containers tend to require the most TLC, but will still be pretty low maintenance for the most part. Trimming away brown and yellow parts of the plants will be something to do, as it can be a sign of disease. Since the terrarium is open, you will have to keep an eye for uninvited pests. Small flies can lay eggs and cause larvae to inhabit this type of enclosure. You will need to remove and treat your open container at any sign of pest invasion. These guys can munch away at your livestock, or worse, cause disease in your flora.

Best Types Of Plants for a Terrarium

best types of closed terrarium plants

These types of terrarium have a lid or cover over them and restricted air flow. Closed enclosures are great for high humidity-oriented plants like Moss, Bromeliads or Ivy plants. These plants typically like indirect sunlight or shade, peat soil and watering weekly or bi-weekly.

best types of open terrarium plants

These types of terrarium have one side of enclosure open and some air flow. Open container terraria are best used for plants that like to dry out completely after watering like Ferns, Pilea & Carnivorous plants. These plants typically like indirect sunlight and weekly watering.

best types of dish terrarium plants

These types of terrarium have no sides or lid on them and lots of air flow. Dish terraria are great setups for low humidity flora that require good air flow like Air plants, Succulents or Cactus. These plants tend to like bright, direct sunlight.

Best Terrarium Kits

Terrarium kits are great for those looking for a complete set to kick start their hobby. In most cases, a terrarium kit will come with everything needed to make your very own terrarium. If you are looking for terrarium kits you can buy with everything needed to get started on a project, here are a few editors picks we recommend taking a look at:

Terrarium Kits For Kids

Terrarium Kits For Kids are beginner friendly kits that come complete with everything needed to make your very own terrarium. The neatest feature with this kit is how it lights up at night. I’d recommend this to anyone looking for a crafty project and not just children.

Succulent Terrarium Kits

Succulent Terrarium Kits are great for those looking to make something that doesn’t require a lot of maintenance. This kit comes with everything needed to start your very own fairy garden. Easily add low humidity plants of your choice like succulents, air plants, or cactus.

Closed Terrarium Kits

This Closed Terrarium Kit is great for an intermediate hobbyist looking for a classic take on a terrarium build. This vintage Wardian case is perfect for you if you want to grow higher humidity thriving plants like orchids or moss. This kit gives you total creative control over the type of substrate and plants you would like to place in it.


A terrarium can be fun and simple projects to make. Keep a mini greenhouse in your kitchen for super fresh herbs or add some earthy decoration to your living space. These miniature gardens are excellent additions to your home. What type of plants do you currently have or plan to have in your terrarium?

the ultimate terrarium guide

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